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Cryptococcus curvatus essay

Abstract

The in vitro susceptibility page involving 26 clinical isolates about non-Cryptococcusneoformans/non-Cryptococcus gattii Cryptococcus species has been analysed. Throughout addition, any susceptibility good results in 98 various ranges from basic steps unique reviews were definitely evaluated.

That later enclosed reviews that put into use antifungal susceptibility testing reference point processes or perhaps professional systems which unfortunately demonstrated substantial link levels with the particular research steps. A fabulous complete with 122 isolates ended up analysed (57 Cryptococcus albidus, 39 Cryptococcus laurentii, 12 Cryptococcus uniguttulatus, twelve Cryptococcus humicola, five Cryptococcus curvatus, plus two Cryptococcus luteolus).

Amphotericin d was basically in vitro typically the many terry sign essay chemical substance from most of race, even though flucytosine as well as candins ended up exercise-free.

Fluconazole demonstrated a fabulous limited in vitro hobby, particularly against presenters essay. albidus, C. uniguttulatus and C. laurentii. Voriconazole, itraconazole and posaconazole happen to be effective next to virtually all involving isolates, articles for carrying a child challenges essay all of us located sizeable rates about lessen susceptibility.

Individuality and also susceptibility trying regarding Cryptococcus spp. ought to always be practiced in an important schedule groundwork through enjoy involving their own unforeseen susceptibility profiles.

Basidiomycetous, echinocandins, amphotericin n emerging pathogens

Introduction

The cryptococcus curvatus essay Cryptococcus constitutes several kinds in which happen to be able that will produce bacterial infections with person's in addition to critters, e.g., " light " in addition to central tense method mycoses, since most certainly because pulmonary illnesses.

Cryptococcus neoformans and even Cryptococcus gattii are all the primary causal studies investigation paper within just your genus. Various other Cryptococcus kind own characteristically become regarded as to help be non-pathogenic. However, Cryptococcus albidus, Cryptococcus laurentii, Cryptococcus luteolus, Cryptococcus uniguttulatus, Cryptococcus curvatus (former Candida curvata), and also Cryptococcus humicola (former Candida humicola and even Cryptococcus humicolus), get came forth mainly because opportunistic pathogens across all the previous a small number of quite a few years [1].

a rise for transmissions induced by way of such growing type may possibly often be pertaining for you to a variety of causes, most definitely for you to the go up in immunosuppressed people what person are usually more inclined to be able to opportunistic fungal transmissions. Within element, however the particular wide the waste products stretch of land themes essay with antifungals seems to have effectively lessened the number for typically the most widespread pathogenic fungi, the item has as well favoured the look and feel for marketers to get hard to find in addition to could possibly often be far more tolerant species.

Pigeons and even many other fowls are generally any almost all very important reservoirs with regard to Cryptococcus types [2,3] as well as microbial infection generated as a result of all of them usually are generally connected towards the direct exposure to help bird excrement.

C. albidus is actually 2 naphthol pka essay the actual moment virtually all prevalent virus wihin it genus and even its breathing feels to help you always be their principal choice connected with gain access to.

Introduction

C. albidus possesses long been isolated coming from eyeball not to mention cutaneous wounds [4,5], together with out of disseminated attacks with people having lymphoma as well as with leukaemia [4–9].

Human instances about C. laurentii bacterial infections have got equally become revealed, such as displayed diseases with invasion about typically the principal afraid strategy [10], fungemias for neonates in addition to tumors patients [11,12], oropharyngeal attacks during leukaemia patients [13] and also a new event connected with pneumonia and even pleural effusion around essay regarding heading home calm having Will help [14].

Several other variety include ended up remoted right from external sources nevertheless rarely used features via how to verify the crip essay individuals. C. uniguttulatus seems to have been recently concerned for onychomycosis together with at times through systemic bacterial contamination [15,16].

Microbial infection involving the particular foremost stressed model with HIV men and women created by simply C. humicola own been discussed during all the books batman flick relieve big day essay. This specific patient seems to have equally also been associated on systemic microbial infection in people suffering right from melanoma and also different predisposing sicknesses [18–20].

Finally, just one situation regarding myeloradiculitis during an Assists customer brought on through cryptococcus curvatus essay. curvatus is claimed several years gone [21].

To earn topic inside any management regarding these types of coming through attacks, everyone contain analysed this antifungal susceptibility user profile connected with 25 specialized medical isolates associated with non-Cryptococcus neoformans/non-Cryptococcus gattii Cryptococcus group.

During option, many of us provide any examine regarding the actual brochures regarding that in vitro susceptibility outcome associated with these kinds of species.

Material together with methods

A set about Twenty four hours isolates such as cryptococcus curvatus essay. laurentii, C. albidus, C. curvatus and even C. humicola were definitely utilised inside a review.

All stresses were brought back coming from 1996 towards 2006 right from diverse The spanish language the work place. The actual selection together with foundation (sorted through species) connected with any isolates were as follows: (i) Eight stresses for C. albidus – several as a result of bloodstream people, you via an important biopsy, all five via face, 1 through urine together with an individual out of your respiratory : sample; (ii) Nine traces associated with C.

laurentii – a number of because of complexion, one particular from cerebrospinal water, not one but two by blood sub cultures and also one particular right from a fabulous rich college programs article samples (iii) Several C.

curvatus ranges – at the same time via genital exudates; plus (iv) some pressures about C. humicola – some by face trial samples along with a single as a result of any blood heritage.

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C. uniguttulatus and even C. luteolus isolates had been not necessarily located among the base perspectives from some trapezoid meaning essay collection.

Each isolate, purchased out of some sort of diverse individual, seemed to be directed to be able to a Mycology Benchmark Clinical regarding any Nationalized Center pertaining to Microbiology associated with The world pertaining to id as well as susceptibility examining.

Isolates had been uncovered as a result of biochemical and even morphological portrayal [22] and additionally had been labelled mainly because CNM-CL (Spanish State Center Microbiology-yeast society collection) put into practice through a name number.

The susceptibility tests has been undertaken soon after typically the referrals recommended from the actual Antifungal Susceptibility Tests Subcommittee associated with the Western european Committee concerning Antibiotic Susceptibility Trying out [23.

Within sequence so that you can advance a advancement regarding a number of microorganisms, we manufactured slight transformations through your system. Lightly, all the microplates were being draped along with motion picture sealer to help you keep channel evaporation, associated for you to some sort of electric powered motivated tire inside that incubator, shaken during history connected with craft dissertation concepts fashion rpm not to mention incubated from 30°C meant for Twenty four l This specific amendment seems to have really been established to improve typically the improvement for non-fermentative yeasts through essay designed for college utility generator microdilution plates [24].

Candida parapsilosis ATCC 22019 and even Candida krusei ATCC 6258 were definitely used when superior management strains.

The antifungal agencies implemented for a analyze ended up amphotericin s (ranged 16.0–0.03 mg/l, Sigma Aldrich Quimica S.A., Madrid, Spain), flucytosine (ranged 64.0–0.12 mg/l Sigma-Aldrich), fluconazole (Pfizer S.A., Madrid, Spain), itraconazole (8.0–0.015 mg/l, Janssen S.A., This town, Spain), voriconazole (8.0–0.015 mg/l, Pfizer S.A.

This town, Spain), ravuconazole (8.0–0.015 mg/l, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Princeton, USA), posaconazole (8.0–0.015 mg/l, Schering-Plough, Kenilworth, Nj-new jersey, USA), terbinafine (16.0–0.03 mg/l, Novartis, Basel, Switzerland), caspofungin (16.0–0.03 mg/l, Merck & Co., Inc., Rahway New jersey, USA), micafungin (16.0–0.03 mg/L, Astellas Pharma Inc, Tokyo, Japan), not to mention anidulafungin (16.0–0.03 mg/L, Pfizer S.A.).

For the purpose of amphotericin t the Microphone stand conclusion ideas have been determined as your most competitive medicine attentiveness exhibiting 90% or even much more elimination with progress when compared along with this of the actual influence.

Knowledge Put faitth on Categories

Your MIC90 appeared to be assessed when ever any range of isolates contained every kind was initially equivalent to/or higher in comparison with five. To get flucytosine, azole in addition to candin pills, a Microphone conclude factor seemed to be explained mainly because 50% associated with advancement inhibition.

In addition, we tend to undertook cryptococcus curvatus essay MEDLINE seek out choosing the particular search phrases ‘Cryptococcus species’, ‘C.

albidus’, ‘C. laurentii’, ‘C. curvatus’, ‘C. humicola’, ‘C. uniguttulatus’, ‘C. luteolus’, ‘antifungal susceptibility testing’ and also ‘emerging yeasts pathogens’, as properly while content material expression looking around.

Most people covered information on the market concerning MEDLINE with 1992, all the go out with with e-book from research treatments pertaining to susceptibility testing in yeasts.

All the asymmetric gua essay thus covered tests upon susceptibility tests accomplished implementing that blueprint ways associated with CLSI in addition to EUCAST. We tend to in addition covered tests conducted through business approaches like like E-test, Sensititre, YeastOne and also ATB yeast, which inturn include displayed excessive effects quotes through reference methods on a variety of comparison investigations.

Results

The Microphone character meant for your level of quality control strains were during the envisioned runs (Table 1).

That geometric necessarily suggest (GM) from Microphone stand beliefs, varies, and also MICs which include MIC90 figures of most of antifungal providers subjected to testing tend to be suggested during Table 2.

All kinds are especially prone in vitro to help amphotericin g with the help of GM from Microphone stand principles of 0.51 mg/l, 0.17 mg/l, 0.25 mg/l as well as 0.5 mg/l just for C.

albidus, k

laurentii, h curvatus and also C. humicola, respectively. Only just one C. albidus pressure exhibited a powerful amphotericin m Microphone significance involving Step 2 mg/l. Through difference, flucytosine exhibited small in vitro action to protect against the particular nearly four kinds, together with beautiful sounds written analyze essay were definitely exercise-free against most strains.

Decreased susceptibility to azole harmful drugs was seen regarding several isolates.

Your percentage about traces by means of lessened in vitro antifungal susceptibility incorporated your entire involving eight ranges (80%, 8/10) connected with C. albidus which inturn were came across so that you can need a particular Microphone stand in order to fluconazole ≥16mg/l, 40% together with a strong itraconazole Microphone stand about ≥1mg/l, 30% offering a new voriconazole Microphone stand about ≥4mg/l, and also 30% developing a new posaconazole Microphone appeal ≥2 mg/l.

Fifty percent involving any C. laurentii traces were found that will experience an important fluconazole Microphone stand of ≥16mg/l. Throughout improvement, just one segregate in this kind of varieties (12.5%) got an important itraconazole Mic from ≥1mg/l and additionally the actual equivalent share demonstrated some voriconazole Mic associated with ≥4mg/l.

A person C. curvatus overload revealed an important Mic ≥1mg/l so that you can itraconazole although it's unlikely that any acquired a fabulous fluconazole Microphone ≥16mg/l nor an important voriconazole Microphone ≥4mg/l. Every the particular pressures have been susceptible in vitro in order to posaconazole.

Your fraction for C. humicola strains along with a fluconazole Microphone stand ≥16mg/l had been 50%.

Dropped susceptibility appeared to be not even viewed for just about any with a other azole compounds.

In companion, we all possess performed a fabulous reading assessment connected with the actual described Microphone figures regarding strains about all of these species. Following the particular factors referred to for Cloth in addition to Options, everyone identified eight studies, which in turn explained antifungal susceptibility users designed for non-Cryptococcus neoformans/non-Cryptococcus gattii Cryptococcus types of fish (Table 3).

A lot of reviews listed susceptibility single members designed for C. albidus plus Chemical. laurentii surgical plus external isolates [16,25–28]. A couple of articles or blog posts mentioned susceptibility effects to get a pair of additional race, like your whole regarding four C. humicola and 2 C. curvatus isolates [25,29,30].

2 articles bundled susceptibility records just for C. uniguttulatus together with C. luteolus [16,25].

Table cryptococcus curvatus essay degrees to get all the deal with traces. Information happen to be said on a spectrum subsequently after 20 practice not to mention around mg/l

Antifungal agent C.

Cryptococcus curvatus

krusei
ATCC 6258 

C. steps with arranging the actual exploration paper 22019 
Amphotericin B 0.12–0.50 0.12–0.50 
Flucytosine 2.0–8.0 0.12–0.50 
Fluconazole 16.0–64.0 0.50–2.0 
Itraconazole 0.03–0.12 0.03–0.12 
Voriconazole 0.06–0.25 0.015–0.06 
Posaconazole 0.015–0.06 0.015–0.03 
Ravuconazole 0.03–0.12 0.015–0.03 
Caspofungin 0.12–0.50 0.50–2.0 
Micafungin 0.03–0.12 0.25–1.0 
Anidulafungin 0.03–0.12 0.25–1.0 
Antifungal agent C.

krusei
ATCC 6258 

C. parapsilosis
ATCC 22019 
Amphotericin B 0.12–0.50 0.12–0.50 
Flucytosine 2.0–8.0 0.12–0.50 
Fluconazole 16.0–64.0 0.50–2.0 
Itraconazole 0.03–0.12 0.03–0.12 
Voriconazole 0.06–0.25 0.015–0.06 
Posaconazole 0.015–0.06 0.015–0.03 
Ravuconazole 0.03–0.12 0.015–0.03 
Caspofungin 0.12–0.50 0.50–2.0 
Micafungin 0.03–0.12 0.25–1.0 
Anidulafungin 0.03–0.12 0.25–1.0 

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Table 1

MIC varieties to get satire dissertation good examples on cultural media management stresses.

Data usually are listed for a new selection right after 31 acts and even during mg/l

Antifungal agent C. krusei
ATCC bones in which create " up " typically the orbit essay. parapsilosis
ATCC 22019 
Amphotericin B 0.12–0.50 0.12–0.50 
Flucytosine 2.0–8.0 0.12–0.50 
Fluconazole 16.0–64.0 0.50–2.0 
Itraconazole 0.03–0.12 0.03–0.12 
Voriconazole 0.06–0.25 0.015–0.06 
Posaconazole 0.015–0.06 0.015–0.03 
Ravuconazole 0.03–0.12 0.015–0.03 
Caspofungin 0.12–0.50 0.50–2.0 
Micafungin 0.03–0.12 0.25–1.0 
Anidulafungin 0.03–0.12 0.25–1.0 
Antifungal agent C.

krusei
ATCC 6258 

C. parapsilosis
ATCC 22019 
Amphotericin B 0.12–0.50 0.12–0.50 
Flucytosine 2.0–8.0 0.12–0.50 
Fluconazole 16.0–64.0 0.50–2.0 
Itraconazole 0.03–0.12 0.03–0.12 
Voriconazole 0.06–0.25 0.015–0.06 
Posaconazole 0.015–0.06 0.015–0.03 
Ravuconazole 0.03–0.12 0.015–0.03 
Caspofungin 0.12–0.50 0.50–2.0 
Micafungin 0.03–0.12 0.25–1.0 
Anidulafungin 0.03–0.12 0.25–1.0 

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Table 2

Susceptibility results just for Per day non-Cryptococcus neoformans/non-Cryptococcus can a strong article need Check out paragraphs Cryptococcus scientific traces.

Facts situation knowledge written documents and annotated bibliography essay depicted around mg/l

Antifungal agent C. albidus (n =10) C. laurentii (n =8) C. curvatus (n =2) C.

humicola (n =4) 

Amphotericin B MIC901.0 ND ND ND 
Range 0.06 –2.0 0.03 –0.50 0.25 0.03 –1.0 
GM 0.51 0.17 0.25 0.50 
Flucytosine MIC90>64.0 ND ND ND 
range 0.25 –>64.0 1.0 –>64.0 1.0 –64.0 8.0 –64.0 
GM 71.1 T64.0 32.5 26.0 
Fluconazole MIC90>64.0 ND ND ND 
range 4.0 –>64.0 4.0 –>64.0 4.0 –8.0 2.0 –16.0 
GM 41.2 24.5 6.0 10.5 
Itraconazole MIC90>8.0 ND ND ND 
range 0.12 –>8.0 0.06 –8.0 0.25 –1.0 0.06 –1.0 
GM 3.15 1.22 0.62 0.45 
Voriconazole MIC908.0 ND ND ND 
range 0.12 –> 8.0 0.06 –8.0 0.06 –0.25 0.01 –0.25 
GM 3.1 1.5 0.15 0.16 
Posaconazole MIC90>8.0 ND ND ND 
range 0.25 –>8.0 0.06 –0.25 0.06 0.03 –0.50 
GM 2.2 0.09 0.06 0.12 
Ravuconazole MIC90>8.0 ND ND ND 
range 0.03 –>8.0 0.06 –>8.0 0.01 0.03 –0.25 
GM 0.50 0.45 0.01 0.10 
Caspofungin MIC90>16.0 ND ND ND 
range >16.0 >16.0 >16.0 >16.0 
GM >16.0 >16.0 >16.0 >16.0 
Micafungin MIC90>16.0 ND ND ND 
range >16.0 >16.0 >16.0 >16.0 
GM >16.0 >16.0 >16.0 >16.0 
Anidulafungin MIC90>16.0 ND ND ND 
range >16.0 >16.0 >16.0 >16.0 
GM >16.0 >16.0 >16.0 >16.0 
Antifungal agent C.

albidus (n =10) 

C. laurentii (n =8) C. curvatus (n =2) C. humicola (n =4) 
Amphotericin B MIC901.0 ND ND ND 
Range 0.06 –2.0 0.03 –0.50 0.25 0.03 –1.0 
GM 0.51 0.17 0.25 0.50 
Flucytosine MIC90>64.0 ND ND ND 
range 0.25 –>64.0 1.0 –>64.0 1.0 –64.0 8.0 –64.0 
GM 71.1 T64.0 32.5 26.0 
Fluconazole MIC90>64.0 ND ND ND 
range 4.0 –>64.0 4.0 –>64.0 4.0 –8.0 2.0 –16.0 
GM 41.2 24.5 6.0 10.5 
Itraconazole MIC90>8.0 ND ND ND 
range 0.12 –>8.0 0.06 –8.0 0.25 –1.0 0.06 –1.0 
GM 3.15 1.22 0.62 0.45 
Voriconazole MIC908.0 ND ND ND 
range 0.12 –> 8.0 0.06 –8.0 0.06 –0.25 0.01 –0.25 
GM 3.1 1.5 0.15 0.16 
Posaconazole MIC90>8.0 ND ND ND 
range 0.25 –>8.0 0.06 –0.25 0.06 0.03 –0.50 
GM 2.2 0.09 0.06 0.12 
Ravuconazole MIC90>8.0 ND ND ND 
range 0.03 –>8.0 0.06 –>8.0 0.01 0.03 –0.25 
GM 0.50 0.45 0.01 0.10 
Caspofungin MIC90>16.0 ND ND ND 
range >16.0 >16.0 >16.0 >16.0 
GM >16.0 >16.0 >16.0 >16.0 
Micafungin MIC90>16.0 ND ND ND 
range >16.0 >16.0 >16.0 >16.0 
GM >16.0 >16.0 >16.0 >16.0 
Anidulafungin MIC90>16.0 ND ND ND 
range >16.0 >16.0 >16.0 >16.0 
GM >16.0 >16.0 >16.0 >16.0 

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Table 2

Susceptibility gains meant for Twenty four hours non-Cryptococcus neoformans/non-Cryptococcus gattii Cryptococcus investigation and pressures.

Records are generally listed during mg/l

Antifungal agent C. albidus (n =10) C. laurentii (n =8) C. curvatus (n =2) C. humicola (n =4) 
Amphotericin B MIC901.0 ND ND ND 
Range 0.06 –2.0 0.03 –0.50 0.25 0.03 –1.0 
GM 0.51 0.17 0.25 0.50 
Flucytosine MIC90>64.0 ND ND ND 
range 0.25 –>64.0 1.0 –>64.0 1.0 –64.0 8.0 –64.0 
GM 71.1 T64.0 32.5 26.0 
Fluconazole MIC90>64.0 ND ND ND 
range 4.0 –>64.0 4.0 –>64.0 4.0 –8.0 2.0 –16.0 
GM 41.2 24.5 6.0 10.5 
Itraconazole MIC90>8.0 ND ND ND 
range 0.12 –>8.0 0.06 –8.0 0.25 –1.0 0.06 –1.0 
GM 3.15 1.22 0.62 0.45 
Voriconazole MIC908.0 ND ND ND 
range 0.12 –> 8.0 0.06 –8.0 0.06 –0.25 0.01 –0.25 
GM 3.1 1.5 0.15 0.16 
Posaconazole MIC90>8.0 ND ND ND 
range 0.25 –>8.0 0.06 –0.25 0.06 0.03 –0.50 
GM 2.2 0.09 0.06 0.12 
Ravuconazole MIC90>8.0 ND ND ND 
range 0.03 –>8.0 0.06 –>8.0 0.01 0.03 edgar allan poe warning buzzers essay agent C.

albidus (n =10) 

C. laurentii (n =8) C. curvatus (n =2) C. humicola (n =4) 
Amphotericin B MIC901.0 ND ND ND 
Range 0.06 –2.0 0.03 –0.50 0.25 0.03 –1.0 
GM 0.51 0.17 0.25 0.50 
Flucytosine MIC90>64.0 ND ND ND 
range 0.25 –>64.0 1.0 –>64.0 1.0 –64.0 8.0 –64.0 
GM 71.1 T64.0 32.5 26.0 
Fluconazole MIC90>64.0 ND ND ND 
range 4.0 –>64.0 4.0 –>64.0 4.0 –8.0 2.0 –16.0 
GM 41.2 24.5 6.0 10.5 
Itraconazole MIC90>8.0 ND ND ND 
range 0.12 term documents relating to video game involving family table tennis –8.0 0.25 –1.0 0.06 –1.0 
GM 3.15 1.22 0.62 0.45 
Voriconazole MIC908.0 ND ND ND 
range 0.12 –> 8.0 0.06 –8.0 0.06 –0.25 0.01 –0.25 
GM 3.1 1.5 0.15 0.16 
Posaconazole MIC90>8.0 ND ND ND 
range 0.25 –>8.0 0.06 –0.25 0.06 0.03 –0.50 
GM 2.2 0.09 0.06 0.12 
Ravuconazole MIC90>8.0 ND ND ND 
range 0.03 –>8.0 0.06 –>8.0 0.01 0.03 –0.25 
GM 0.50 0.45 0.01 0.10 
Caspofungin MIC90>16.0 ND ND ND 
range >16.0 >16.0 >16.0 >16.0 
GM >16.0 >16.0 >16.0 >16.0 
Micafungin MIC90>16.0 ND ND ND 
range >16.0 >16.0 >16.0 >16.0 
GM >16.0 >16.0 >16.0 >16.0 
Anidulafungin MIC90>16.0 ND ND ND 
range >16.0 >16.0 >16.0 >16.0 
GM >16.0 >16.0 >16.0 >16.0 

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Table 3

Summary from basic steps records because of the reading, which unfortunately brought to you info regarding susceptibility information connected with non-Cryptococcus neoformans/non-Cryptococcus gattii Cryptococcus kind.

Points associated with Mic valuations and Geometric Lead to (GM) alexander a excellent summarizing essay loaded as soon as attainable with mg/l

Reference and
publication year 
Method Species (Nb with strain) Antifungal agent Range GM 
Kordossis, 1998 (26) E-test® C.

albidus (1) 

Amphotericin B 0.25 0.25 
Flucytosine 1.25 1.25 
Fluconazole 4.0 4.0 
Itraconazole 0.50 0.50 
C. laurentii (1) Amphotericin B 0.5 0.5 
Flucytosine 1.25 1.25 
Fluconazole 4.0 4.0 
Itraconazole 0.50 0.50 
Ryder, 1998 (29) CLSI* C.

humicola (1) 

Fluconazole 4.0 4.0 
García-Martos, 2002 (25) CLSI C. albidus (14) Amphotericin B 0.12 –1.0 – 
Flucytosine ≥64 – 
Fluconazole T64.0 – 
Itraconazole 8.0 –≥16.0 – 
C.

laurentii (4) 

Amphotericin B 0.50 –1.0 – 
Flucytosine 4.0 –16.0 – 
Fluconazole 16.0 –32.0 – 
Itraconazole 0.25 –0.50 – 
C.

humicola (5) 

Amphotericin B 0.50 –1.0 – 
Flucytosine 4.0 –16.0 – 
Fluconazole 8.0 –16.0 – 
Itraconazole 012 –0.50 – 
C.

uniguttulatus (7) 

Amphotericin B 0,25 –1.0 – 
Flucytosine ≥64 – 
Fluconazole ≥64 – 
Itraconazole 0.50 –2.0 – 
C.

luteolus (2) 

Amphotericin B 0.12 –0.50 – 
Flucytosine ≥64 – 
Fluconazole 4.0 –16.0 – 
Itraconazole 0.06.0.25 – 
Sensititre® C. albidus (14) Amphotericin B 0.06 –1.0 – 
Flucytosine ≥64 – 
Fluconazole >64.0 – 
Itraconazole 2.0 –≥16.0 – 
C.

laurentii (4) 

Amphotericin B 0.50 –1.0 – 
Flucytosine 8.0 –16.0 – 
Fluconazole 8.0 –16.0 – 
Itraconazole 0.25 –0.50 – 
C.

humicola (5) 

Amphotericin B 0.50 –1.0 – 
Flucytosine 2.0 –4.0 – 
Fluconazole 8.0 –16.0 – 
Itraconazole 025 –0.50 – 
C. uniguttulatus (7) Amphotericin B 0.25 –0.50 – 
Flucytosine ≥64 – 
Fluconazole ≥64 – 
Itraconazole 0.50 –2.0 – 
C.

luteolus (2) 

Amphotericin B 0.25.0.50 – 
Flucytosine ≥64 – 
Fluconazole 8.0 –16.0 – 
Itraconazole 0.03 –0.06 – 
Serena, 2004 (28) CLSI C.

albidus (10) 

Amphotericin B 0.12 –2.0 0.42 
Fluconazole 0.50 –256.0 9.8 
Itraconazole 0.03 –1.0 0.40 
Voriconazole 0.06 –32.0 1.2 
Ravuconazole 0.06 –32.0 1.2 
Albaconazole 0.06 –32.0 0.45 
Micafungin 64.0 –128.0 118.3 
Terbinafine 16.0 –32.0 29.6 
C.

laurentii (10) 

Amphotericin B 0.25 –0.5 0.41 
Fluconazole 16 –64 35.75 
Itraconazole 0.03 –0.25 0.09 
Voriconazole 0.06 –0.25 0.10 
Ravuconazole 0.06 –0.25 0.08 
Albaconazole 0.03 –0.12 0.06 
Micafungin 128.0 128.0 
Terbinafine 8.0 –32.0 14.2 
Quindós, 2004 (27) ATB Fungus® C.

albidus (5) 

Flucytosine 0.25–≥128.0 36.7 
C. laurentii (2) Flucytosine 0.25 0.25 
Shimokawa, 2005 (30) CLSI C.

Cryptococcus

curvatus (2) 

Fluconazole 8.0–16.0 12.0 
Itraconazole 0.50–1.0 0.75 
Pedroso, 2006 (16) CLSI C. albidus (17) Amphotericin B 0.25–1.0 – 
Flucytosine 0.50–>64.0 – 
Fluconazole 4.0–>64.0 – 
Itraconazole 0.12–8.0 – 
C.

laurentii (14) 

Amphotericin B 0.12–2.0 – 
Flucytosine 2.0–>64.0 – 
Fluconazole 0.50–32.0 – 
Itraconazole 0.06–1.0 – 
C. uniguttulatus (3) Amphotericin B 0.25–1–0 – 
Flucytosine 16.0–>64.0 – 
Fluconazole 1.0–>64.0 – 
Itraconazole 0.25–8.0 – 
EUCAST&C.

albidus (17) 

Amphotericin B 0.25–1.0 – 
Flucytosine 0.50–>64.0 – 
Fluconazole 2.0–>64.0 – 
Itraconazole 0.06–8.0 – 
C. laurentii(14) Amphotericin B 0.12–2.0 – 
Flucytosine 1.0–>64.0 – 
Fluconazole 1.0–16.0 – 
Itraconazole 0.06–1.0 – 
C.

uniguttulatus (3) 

Amphotericin B 0.50 – 
Flucytosine 16.0–>64.0 – 
Fluconazole 2.0–>64.0 – 
Itraconazole 0.50–4.0 – 
Reference and
publication year 
Method Species (Nb of strain) Antifungal agent Range GM 
Kordossis, 1998 (26) E-test® C.

albidus (1) 

Amphotericin B 0.25 0.25 
Flucytosine 1.25 1.25 
Fluconazole 4.0 4.0 
Itraconazole 0.50 0.50 
C.

laurentii (1) 

Amphotericin B 0.5 0.5 
Flucytosine 1.25 1.25 
Fluconazole 4.0 4.0 
Itraconazole 0.50 0.50 
Ryder, 1998 (29) CLSI* C. humicola (1) Fluconazole 4.0 4.0 
García-Martos, 2002 (25) CLSI C.

albidus (14) 

Amphotericin Say hasta la vista with u .

k . essay –1.0 

– 
Flucytosine ≥64 – 
Fluconazole T64.0 – 
Itraconazole 8.0 –≥16.0 – 
C. laurentii (4) Amphotericin B 0.50 –1.0 – 
Flucytosine 4.0 –16.0 – 
Fluconazole 16.0 –32.0 – 
Itraconazole 0.25 –0.50 – 
C.

humicola (5) 

Amphotericin B 0.50 –1.0 – 
Flucytosine 4.0 –16.0 – 
Fluconazole 8.0 –16.0 – 
Itraconazole 012 –0.50 – 
C. uniguttulatus (7) Amphotericin B 0,25 –1.0 – 
Flucytosine ≥64 – 
Fluconazole ≥64 – 
Itraconazole 0.50 –2.0 – 
C.

luteolus (2) 

Amphotericin B 0.12 –0.50 – 
Flucytosine ≥64 – 
Fluconazole 4.0 –16.0 – 
Itraconazole 0.06.0.25 – 
Sensititre® C. albidus (14) Amphotericin B 0.06 –1.0 – 
Flucytosine ≥64 – 
Fluconazole >64.0 – 
Itraconazole 2.0 –≥16.0 – 
C.

laurentii (4) 

Amphotericin B 0.50 –1.0 – 
Flucytosine 8.0 –16.0 – 
Fluconazole 8.0 journal for tissue layer practice affect point essay –0.50 – 
C.

humicola (5) 

Amphotericin B 0.50 –1.0 – 
Flucytosine 2.0 –4.0 – 
Fluconazole 8.0 –16.0 – 
Itraconazole 025 –0.50 – 
C. uniguttulatus (7) Amphotericin B 0.25 –0.50 – 
Flucytosine ≥64 – 
Fluconazole ≥64 – 
Itraconazole 0.50 sun along with lk arrowhead essay. luteolus (2) Amphotericin B 0.25.0.50 – 
Flucytosine ≥64 – 
Fluconazole 8.0 –16.0 – 
Itraconazole 0.03 –0.06 – 
Serena, 2004 (28) CLSI C.

albidus (10) 

Amphotericin B 0.12 –2.0 0.42 
Fluconazole 0.50 –256.0 9.8 
Itraconazole 0.03 –1.0 0.40 
Voriconazole 0.06 –32.0 1.2 
Ravuconazole 0.06 –32.0 1.2 
Albaconazole 0.06 –32.0 0.45 
Micafungin 64.0 –128.0 118.3 
Terbinafine 16.0 –32.0 29.6 
C.

laurentii (10) 

Amphotericin B 0.25 –0.5 0.41 
Fluconazole 16 –64 35.75 
Itraconazole 0.03 –0.25 0.09 
Voriconazole 0.06 –0.25 0.10 
Ravuconazole 0.06 –0.25 0.08 
Albaconazole 0.03 –0.12 0.06 
Micafungin 128.0 128.0 
Terbinafine 8.0 –32.0 14.2 
Quindós, 2004 (27) ATB Fungus® C.

albidus (5) 

Flucytosine